Indian Bus Rapid Transit System
This paper reviews the planning, implementation, and initial operation of bus rapid transit systems (BRTSs) in India. The initial four cities that received funds under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) are reviewed: Ahmedabad, Indore, Jaipur, and Pune. JnNURM is a Government of India (GOI) program to support state and local investment in urban development. GOI also adopted a National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP). Indian states and municipalities are required to follow NUTP rules and regulations, including clear incentives for the implementation of public transport systems and non-motorized infrastructure projects, as opposed to general road construction or expansion projects. This paper describes relevant characteristics of the BRTs being implemented in each city and provides comments on planning, design, and institutional arrangements. The projects are an important departure from traditional urban transport practices in Indian cities: they prioritize the use of public transport and non-motorized modes. Nevertheless, this preliminary survey suggests that in most cases a strong focus remains on infrastructure, while other elements of BRTs receive less attention. As a result, the full potential of BRTs is not necessarily attained. Regarding planning activities, it is noted that demand estimation and operations design could have been more elaborate. This paper provides general recommendations for planners, decision makers, and funding agencies in an effort to improve the state of the practice in India and other developing countries.